Black donut attractant pheromone
  • Black donut attractant pheromone

Spodoptera littoralis 2mg

Descripcion:
 Spodoptera Littoralis Pheromone Diffuser (Black Donut)

Duration: 40 days
OMDF registration number: 080/2013
3,25 €
Ref: VA020
Cant.

SEX ATTRACTIVE PHEROMONES FOR BLACK ROSQUILLA

Capsule-shaped natural rubber diffuser, individually packed in an aluminum envelope with a specification label. Once removed from the container, the diffuser does not need any activation operation, just be properly placed in the trap.
Spodoptera littoralis is a highly polyphagous species that mainly affects horticultural and ornamental crops, especially in the areas of the Mediterranean coast and southern Spain.
Normally the first adults begin to appear in spring, although they are difficult to see because they are nocturnal and remain hidden during the day.
Affected crops: Eggplant, Zucchini, Green bean, Melon, Cucumber, Pepper, Watermelon, Tomato, etc.

MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY

Egg: They are deposited in masses or plates of 400 to 700 units (under favorable conditions), and covered with a cottony mass of anal scales from the female. They are approximately 0.5 mm in size.
Larva: It has a dark brown or black head. The body is blackish in color and has a velvety appearance. Each segment presents a lateral black crescent-shaped spot and the first one also has four points like a collar. The first segments of the thorax are darker than the rest of the body. The thoracic legs (3 pairs) are black, while the false (5 pairs) abdominal legs are dark brown on the outside and light on the inside. In its last larval stage it can reach a size of 3.5 cm.
Pupa: It is reddish brown in color. It is spindle-shaped and has two hooks at the bottom in the shape of a 'U' curved inward. Its size is 2 cm.
Adult: They have a wingspan of 3 to 4.5 cm. They are light brown in color but marked with multiple spots, with poorly defined drawings based on gray, black and white as the predominant colors. Wing spots are narrow, poorly defined. In the middle of the wing it presents an oblique mark, light brown, that starts from the front edge until it is blurred in the median veins.
The hind wings are white, translucent except for the front and outer edges which are tinged with brown.
The caterpillars can appear as a plague in late summer to early autumn, coinciding with the flights of butterflies, although there is a continuous succession of generations in the warmer regions of the Spanish southeast.
Clutches are located on the underside of the leaves, although they have also been observed in flower buds, buds or even a few centimeters from the ground, and even in the structures (sticks, plastics, etc.) of greenhouses.
The larvae in their first larval stages are located in the tender parts of plants. They avoid light and heat, taking refuge on the underside of the leaves.

SOURCE: Andalusian Ministry of Agriculture.

DETECTION AND MONITORING

We will use 1 to 2 traps per hectare, placed at the height of the crop. They can be placed on a support for this purpose. Traps should be set in spring.

MASSIVE CATCHES

The males of this species are mainly captured, in order to reduce mating, so that non-copulated females will have unviable eggs. This reduces the pest population.
To make massive captures, the number of traps per area is increased, depending on the situation and homogeneity of the plots. A trap controls an area between 500 and 1,000 m2. This translates into a density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare.

NECESSARY MATERIAL

An ECONEX POLILLERO or EOSTRAP® trap and an ECONEX SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS pheromone diffuser.

TIME OF EMPLOYMENT

To achieve good control of Spodoptera littoralis, it is advisable to combine the two methods, the detection and monitoring method and the mass capture method.
In spring, 1 to 2 traps can be placed per hectare to detect the pest and observe the level of its populations. By means of tolerance thresholds established in each zone, the moment to adopt control measures is later defined, in this case massive catches.
The tolerance threshold for Spodoptera littoralis is very low and varies by area. In a very general way, it can be said that it is around 3 captures per trap and week. Moment in which we recommend the deployment of the traps throughout the plot for mass capture.

DAMAGE

DIRECT DAMAGE: The larvae in their first larval stages have gregarious behavior, gnawing the parenchyma on the underside of the leaves, and leaving the epidermis. In the following larval stages they distance themselves and isolate themselves, devouring the entire leaves, producing serious defoliation, and can also gnaw the stems, even perforating galleries. In severe attacks, damage to fruits can be observed.

INDIRECT DAMAGES: The wounds caused by this pest facilitate the entry of other pathogens (fungi, bacteria, etc.).
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NUMBER OF TRAPS NECESSARY

The population of the pest, the neighboring crops, the level of control sought, etc. An important factor is the size of the crop. In small and irregular crops a greater number of traps is required than in larger and uniform plots.
Another important factor is the distance of some plots with others, which have the same pest. In these cases, the boundaries of the plots must be reinforced, so a density of up to 20 traps per hectare may be necessary, or more in the case of massive captures.

RESULTS

If the technicians or farmers use the traps and pheromones properly, as described above and especially early when the adults of the first generation come out, the effectiveness of this control system is very good, with a very low level of damage. A control of more than 95% is quite frequent, especially where large areas of cultivation are covered.
A limiting factor of this system can be when there are many small plots distributed in many places and the neighbors have a high level of infestation with this pest. Despite some important ground rules for effective control of Spodoptera littoralis, each grower or technician has to find their own system to achieve this and can experiment with this system, even setting their own tolerance thresholds.


STORAGE OF DIFFUSERS

The diffusers must be kept in their original container and in a refrigerator at 4o C; or in the freezer at -18o C, in which case they will remain valid for 2 and 4 years respectively.

Data sheet

Plaga objetivo
Rosquilla negra

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Spodoptera littoralis 2mg

 Spodoptera Littoralis Pheromone Diffuser (Black Donut)

Duration: 40 days
OMDF registration number: 080/2013

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