The mosquitoes (Latin Culicidae) Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera; genera include Anopheles, Culex, Psorfora, Oclerotatus, Aedes, Stegomyia.Sabetes, Culiseta and Haemagoggus. There are 35 genres in total with over 2,700 recognized species.
Are flying insects, which have a slender body and long legs; its size varies from species to species, but rarely exceed 15 mm.
In most female mosquitoes, the mouth parts form a long proboscis ready for piercing the skin of mammals (or in some cases of birds, reptiles and amphibians) to suck its blood. The females require protein to compensate the formation of eggs and, unlike males, whose normal diet consists of nectar, sap and fruit juice, usually poor in protein, must drink blood, at least for a time, for the necessary. The vocal organs of the males differ from females in that which enables them to suck blood. Exceptionally, females of a species of mosquitoes, Toxorhynchites not drink blood. This mosquito larvae are predators of other mosquito larvae.
Like other holometabolous insects (with complete metamorphosis) development through four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The body growth rate depends on the species and temperature. For example, Culex tarsalis may complete its life cycle in 14 days at 20 ° C and in just ten days at 25 ° C.
Some species have life cycles just four days and others at the opposite end, up to one month.
Diseases that they can transmit.
As other biting insects, mosquitoes are vectors of infectious diseases:
- The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes Stegomyia) is a mosquito that can be host of the dengue virus and yellow fever and other diseases. Previously classified as a subgenus of Aedes (which owns the closely related Aedes albopictus, the principal vector for dengue) in 2005 molecular studies led to reclassify Stegomyia as gender, renaming the mosquito (which was known until then Aedes aegypti).
- In endemic areas, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is a vector in the transmission of diseases such as dengue in Central America, South Pacific, yellow fever and although much less frequently than the Stegomyia aegypti vector can be in the transmission of West Nile Virus. American studies have shown the presence of virus in the insect, of which at least two are cause disease in humans and equine encephalitis.
- The vector of human malaria is the female Anopheles mosquito. This disease is the leading cause of debilitating diseases, with more than 200 million cases each year worldwide.
- Certain strains of Culex pipiens, the most common mosquito in Europe, are vectors of a presently emerging disease in North America, West Nile fever, although presence oldest in the world.The Old reservoir of the virus, as in many other cases , it is found in birds, and there are strains of mosquito that bite birds, but not mammals, and vice versa. Hybrid forms that have spread in North America are less specific, and this contributes to the more rapid expansion of the disease.
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.